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Monarchs of British islands

Kings and Queens of England, Scotland, Great Britain and/or the United Kingdom since 1000AD

Monarchs ranked

Oldest at accession

  1. William IV
    In 1830 aged 64
  2. Edward VII
    In 1901 aged 60
  3. George IV
    In 1820 aged 58

Youngest at coronation

  1. Henry VI
    In 1429 aged 7
  2. Henry III
    In 1220 aged 9
  3. Edward VI
    In 1547 aged 10

Longest reign

  1. Elizabeth II
    Ongoing - Over 63 years and 216 days
  2. Victoria
    63 years, 216 days
  3. George III
    59 years, 96 days

Shortest reign*

  1. Edmund Ironside
    7 months and 7 days, 1016
  2. Harold II
    9 months and 8 days, 1066
  3. Richard III
    2 years and 57 days, 1483-1485
*among undisputed and crowned monarchs only

Earliest female monarchs*

  1. Mary, Queen of Scots
    Queen of Scotland from 1542-1567, daughter of James V
  2. Mary I
    Queen of England, Wales & Ireland from 1553-1558 (alongside King Philip)
  3. Elizabeth I
    Queen of England, Wales & Ireland from 1558-1567
*among undisputed and crowned monarchs only

Highest number of offspring (legitimate issue only)

  • 15
    George III
    Lived from 1738 to 1820
    James II
    Lived from 1633 to 1701
  • 14
    Edward I
    aka 'Longshanks'; Lived from 1239 to 1307
    Robert II
    of Scotland only; Lived from 1316 to 1390
  • 13
    Æthelred
    aka 'Æthelred the Unready'; Lived from circa-967 to 1016
  • Highest number of offspring (all known alleged issue)

  • 27
    Henry (I)
    Lived from 1068 to 1135
  • 22
    James II
    As James VII in Scotland; Lived from 1633 to 1701
  • 17
    Edward I
    aka 'Longshanks'; Lived from 1239 to 1307

  • Chronologically by year of accesion

    Explanation of selected terminology and symbols

    LABEL EXPLANATION
    Year of accession
    Year of the monarch's accession to the throne prior to coronation
    Issue (leg.)
    Number of children born to the monarch and recognised as legitimate heirs by virtue of having been conceived in wedlock.
    Issue (illeg.)
    Number of children born to the monarch deemed illegtitimate due to having conceived out of wedlock.
    W
    Monarch born and recognised as a woman
    Uncrowned
    Monarch recognised as having Year of accession to the throne but had no coronation.
    Disputed
    Subject's claim to the specific is disputed, likely suggesting they ruled over a majority of the realm but not its entirety.
    Lifespan / reign

    Monarch's overall lifespan
    % of lifespan as monarch

    As of the 1707 Acts of Union

    MONARCH TITLE BORN Year of accession DIED ISSUE (LEG.) ISSUE (ILLEG.)
    Elizabeth II
    1926
    W
    1952
    TBD
    4
    0
    Brother
    George VI

    Also final monarch of Ireland and India

    1895
    1936
    1952
    2
    0
    Edward VIII
    Uncrowned

    Voluntarily abdicated after ten months

    1894
    1936
    1972
    0
    0
    George V
    1865
    1910
    1936
    6
    0
    Edward VII

    Also first Emperor of India and first King of British Dominions

    1841
    1901
    1910
    6
    0
    Niece
    Victoria

    Also Empress of India from 1876

    1819
    W
    1837
    1901
    9
    0
    Brother
    William IV

    Also final King of Hanover

    1765
    1830
    1837
    2
    10
    George IV

    Also first King of Hanover from 1814

    1762
    1820
    1830
    1
    0
    Grandson
    George III
    1738
    1760
    1820
    15
    0
    George II
    1683
    1727
    1760
    8
    0
    2nd Cousin
    George I
    1660
    1714
    1727
    2
    3
    Sister-in-law
    Anne
    1665
    W
    1702
    1714
    5
    0

    As of the Restoration of the British monarchy in 1660

    MONARCH TITLE BORN Year of accession DIED ISSUE (LEG.) ISSUE (ILLEG.)
    Husband
    William III

    aka William of Orange & as William II in Scotland

    1650
    1689
    1702
    0
    0
    Mary II
    1662
    W
    1689
    1694
    0
    0
    Brother
    James II

    As James VII in Scotland

    1633
    1685
    1701
    15*
    7*
    Charles II
    1630
    1660*
    1685
    0
    14+

    As of the Commonwealth of England established in 1649

    LORD PRO.
    TITLE BORN Year of accession DIED ISSUE (LEG.) ISSUE (ILLEG.)
    Richard Cromwell
    1626
    1658
    1712
    9
    n/a
    Oliver Cromwell
    1599
    1653
    1658
    9
    n/a
    None

    A Rump Parliament established the Commonwealth of England in the aftermath of the Second English Civil War.

    n/a
    1649
    n/a
    n/a
    n/a

    Of England (also Wales from 1283 and Ireland from 1542)

    MONARCH TITLE BORN Year of accession DIED ISSUE (LEG.) ISSUE (ILLEG.)
    Charles I
    1600
    1625
    1649
    9
    0
    1st cousin
    2 removed
    James I

    Already James VI in Scotland since 1567

    1566
    1603
    1625
    7
    0
    Half-sister
    Elizabeth I
    1533
    W
    1558
    1603
    0
    0
    1st cousin 1 removed
    Mary I

    with Philip of Naples / Philip II of Spain

    1516
    W
    1553
    1558
    0
    0
    1st cousin 1 removed
    Jane
    Disputed

    aka Lady Jane Grey

    1536 / 1537
    W
    1553
    1554
    0
    0
    Edward VI
    1537
    1547
    1553
    0
    0
    Henry VIII

    Also King of Ireland from 1542

    1491
    1509
    1547
    4
    1+
    4th cousin
    1 removed
    Henry VII
    1457
    1485
    1509
    8
    1
    Uncle
    Richard III
    1452
    1483
    1485
    1
    2
    Edward V
    Uncrowned

    1470
    1483
    1483*
    0
    0
    3rd cousin
    2 removed
    Edward IV

    Deposed for six months and replaced by Henry VI between 1470 and 1471.

    1442
    1461
    1483
    10
    5+
    Henry VI

    Deposed for nine and a half years before a second brief reign between 1470 and 1471.

    1421
    1422
    1471
    1
    0
    Henry V
    1387
    1413
    1422
    1
    0
    Cousin
    Henry IV
    1367
    1399
    1413
    6
    0
    Grandson
    Richard II
    1367
    1377
    1400
    0
    0
    Edward III

    Also claimed King of France from 1337

    1312
    1327
    1377
    9
    0
    Edward II
    1284
    1307
    1327
    4
    1
    Edward I

    aka 'Longshanks', also de facto King of Wales from 1283

    1239
    1274
    1307
    14+
    3
    Henry III
    1207
    1216
    1272
    5
    0
    Brother
    John

    Also Lord of Ireland from 1177

    1166
    1199
    1216
    5
    0
    Richard

    The Lionheart

    1157
    1189
    1199
    0
    1
    Henry II

    aka Henry Plantaganet

    1133
    1154
    1189
    10
    0
    Cousin
    Matilda
    Disputed
    Former Holy Roman Empress 1114-1125. Disputed reign, as Lady of the English, disrupted the reign of King Stephen between 1141 and 1148.

    1102
    W
    1141
    1167
    3
    0
    Nephew
    Stephen

    aka Stephen of Blois. Reign disrupted by the disputed reign of Matilda between 1141 and 1148.

    1092 / 1096
    1135
    1154
    5
    0
    Brother
    Henry

    Also Duke of Normandy from 1106

    1068
    1100
    1135
    2+
    25+
    William II

    aka William Rufus

    1056
    1087
    1100
    0
    0
    William

    aka William The Conqueror

    1028
    1066
    1087
    9+
    0
    Edgar
    Disputed
    Uncrowned

    aka Edgar the Ætheling

    1051
    1066
    1126
    0
    0
    Harold II

    aka Harold Godwinson

    1022
    1066
    1066
    7
    0
    Edward

    aka Edward The Confessor

    1003
    1043
    1066
    0
    0
    Harthacnut
    additionally as King of Denmark

    1018
    1040
    1042
    0
    0
    Harold Harefoot
    Uncrowned?
    1016 (est.)
    1035
    1040
    0
    1*
    Cnut (aka Canute)

    additionally as King of Denmark & Norway

    c.995
    1017
    1035
    4
    0
    Edmund Ironside
    c.991
    1016
    1016
    2
    0
    Æthelred the Unready

    Deposed for three months between 1013 and 2014 by Sweyn Forkbeard

    c.967
    978
    1016
    13+
    0
    Various
    Rulers of House Wessex
    c.450-500
    519
    978

    Of Scotland only

    MONARCH TITLE BORN Year of accession DIED ISSUE (LEG.) ISSUE (ILLEG.)
    James VI

    Also King of England from 1603 as James I

    1566
    1567
    1625
    7
    0
    Mary

    Queen of Scots

    1542
    W
    1542
    1587
    1
    0
    James V
    1512
    1513
    1542
    3
    9+
    James IV
    1473
    1488
    1513
    4
    5+
    James III
    1451
    1460
    1488
    3
    0
    James II
    1430
    1437
    1460
    7
    1
    James I
    1394
    1406
    1437
    8
    0
    Robert III
    1337 (est.)
    1390
    1406
    7
    2+
    Nephew
    Robert II
    1316
    1371
    1390
    14
    0
    Edward Balliol
    Disputed
    1283
    1332
    1367
    0
    0
    David II
    1324
    1329
    1371
    0
    0
    Robert

    aka Robert The Bruce

    1274
    1306
    1329
    5
    6
    Various
    Interregnum 1296-1306
    House Balliol 1292-1296
    Interregnum 1290-1292
    House Sverre
    1286-1290 (DISP.)
    House Dunkeld 1034-1286
    House Alpin 848-1034
    848

    About this page

    This page was first published in December 2016. Information on this page may change as a result of any inaccuracies identified. Key sources of information for this page include Wikipedia.